By John Stuart Clark
In 1849, numerous hundred thousand american citizens and Europeans started streaming throughout ‘The nice American Desert’ sure for the gold fields of California. Their dream was once to strike it wealthy, but when the Gold Rush epitomizes the yankee Dream, their trek in the course of the barren region grew to become the worst of nightmares. a hundred and fifty years later, British biking journalist John Stuart Clark retraces an analogous roads, rivers and trails taken by means of the 40 Niners, suffering throughout 3,000 miles of inhospitable terrain, combating violent sandstorms and withering warmth. biking the place no sane individual would select to cycle, at a time whilst the fiercest twister and worst institution bloodbath on checklist shake the kingdom, Clark tells the tales of these he encounters with an unusual sensitivity and knowing. half travelogue, half social heritage, all enormously good written, this is often the undying tale of a state taking inventory of itself and the yank Dream.
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Additional info for After the Gold Rush: A Bicycle Journey Through American History
Some of the codices in the library were marked ad legendum (for reading), and were read out in the refectory by brothers chosen for their strong voices and careful diction. Saints' lives were often chosen for this purpose; an abridged version of Adamnan's Vita Columbae was prepared specifically to be read at mealtimes. The library also served the monastery's teachers and administrators. Students in the inner and outer schools learned the rudiments of grammar and composition by listening to their teachers read from the works of acknowledged masters, or from formulae, compilations of specimens illustrating various types of prose composition.
The Pergamenes improved the preparation of animal skins for writing to such an extent that they became known as charta pergamena. Soon after the city came under Mark Antony's rule in -41, he presented the Pergamene Library to Cleopatra, presumably to make good the losses suffered when Julius Caesar invaded Egypt. So came to an end the one library that aspired to competition with Alexandria. This is not to say that other Greek cities did not have their libraries. Pella, the capital of Macedonia, was an active center of scholarship.
The life of a monastic scholar was not an easy one. "3 But it was all for the glory of God and the salvation of men's souls, and Bede delighted in it. Another center of learning in the north of England was the cathedral school of York, founded by Bede's pupil Egbert. Like that of Canterbury, it LANTERNS OF THE DARK AGES / 43 had been established to train the secular clergy, the priests who administered the sacraments and taught the rudiments of the Christian faith to their countrymen. Egbert's successor, Archbishop Ethelbert, was especially devoted to its library, which he built into the finest in Europe.
After the Gold Rush: A Bicycle Journey Through American History by John Stuart Clark