By Harold M. McNair, James M. Miller
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Additional resources for Basic gas chromatography
Modern Infrared Spectroscopy, ACOL Series, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1996. University of Greenwich, and reproduced by permission of the University of Greenwich. 14 Beam of radiation passing through an empty cell. 13, calculate the pathlength of the cell. 5 Reﬂectance Methods Reﬂectance techniques may be used for samples that are difﬁcult to analyse by the conventional transmittance methods. Reﬂectance methods can be divided into two categories. Internal reﬂectance measurements can be made by using an attenuated total reﬂectance cell in contact with the sample.
The choice of method depends very much on the nature of the sample to be examined. The use of alkali halide discs involves mixing a solid sample with a dry alkali halide powder. 3 Pathlength selection for solution cells. , Modern Infrared Spectroscopy, ACOL Series, Wiley, Chichester, UK, 1996. 575 × 105 kg m−2 ) in an evacuated die. This sinters the mixture and produces a clear transparent disc. The most commonly used alkali halide is potassium bromide (KBr), which is completely transparent in the mid-infrared region.
University of Greenwich, and reproduced by permission of the University of Greenwich. passes part through the mull and only part through the plates, hence producing a distorted spectrum. The amount of sample placed between the infrared plates is an important factor; too little leads to a very weak spectrum showing only the strongest absorption bands. Too much mull leads to poor transmission of radiation so that the baseline may be at 50% or less. It is sometimes possible to reduce the energy of a reference beam to a similar extent by use of an attenuator.
Basic gas chromatography by Harold M. McNair, James M. Miller