Download e-book for kindle: Basic Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences by Hrvoj Vančik

By Hrvoj Vančik

ISBN-10: 3319076043

ISBN-13: 9783319076041

ISBN-10: 3319076051

ISBN-13: 9783319076058

This booklet is designed for college students of biology, molecular biology, ecology, medication, agriculture, forestry and different professions the place the information of natural chemistry performs the real position. The paintings can also be of curiosity to non-professionals, in addition to to academics in excessive faculties. The e-book includes eleven chapters that hide: - simple rules of constitution and structure of natural compounds, - the weather of the nomenclature, - the techniques of the character of chemical bond, - introductions in NMR and IR spectroscopy, - the thoughts and major periods of the natural response mechanisms, - reactions and houses of universal periods or natural compounds, - and the advent to the chemistry of the ordinary natural items by way of simple rules of the reactions in residing cells.

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The presence of the functional group is also the basis for systematization of organic compounds into specific classes. The most common functional groups together with their nomenclature are listed in following tables. The additional functional groups as well as the details of the nomenclature of specific classes of compounds will be discussed later in this book. H. 1007/978-3-319-07605-8_2, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 17 18 2 Functional Groups Amongst the functional groups which have double and triple bonds we shall mention those in the following table.

From the upper scheme it is clear that the protonation forms new positively charged molecule which is called carbocation and in which the positive charge is mostly localized on the carbon atom. Carbocations are relatively unstable molecules, the reactive intermediates which are present for only a short time during some chemical reactions. Since formally either of the alkene carbons could be protonated two carbocations can possibly form. However, experiments and high level quantum chemical calculations have shown that they have different stabilities: Since only the stable carbocation can survive long enough to react, the Br− nucleophile donates its lone pair to the positively charged carbon atom and binds to it: In summary, the reaction mechanism consists of two steps: (i) the protonation of the double bond resulting in the formation of stable carbocation and (ii) the attack of the nucleophile (Br−) on the positive carbon of the same carbocation.

If the wire is shorter the note (frequency) is higher and vice versa, the longer the wire the lower the note (frequency). As we know from physics, the vibrational frequency is proportional to the energy and consequently, the shorter wire has higher energy than the longer one. Taking this rule into account, by connecting two shorter wires to construct one longer wire we shall get a lower energy. We conclude that the energy is lower if the standing wave moves over a larger area of space. This is described in the following diagram: If the wave function is labeled with Φ, than the lower energy wave is obtained by adding the functions Φ1 and Φ2.

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Basic Organic Chemistry for the Life Sciences by Hrvoj Vančik

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