By James Freeman Steffe
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Additional info for Bioprocessing Pipelines: Rheology and Analysis
22) and Eq. 23), respectively. Power law fluid properties are determined by regression analysis of the resulting values. The flow behavior index determined in this step will be identical to the value found previously using Eq. 21). 4 Cone and Plate, and Parallel Plate Viscometers Cone and plate sensors are commonly made available with rotational viscometers. Cone angles (Fig. 9) are very small, typically 2 to 4 degrees. 26) In a parallel plate system (Fig. 0 mm. Calculating the shear stress at the rim may require a correction for non-Newtonian phenomena.
To avoid serious measurement errors the maximum cross-sectional dimension of the largest particles should be less than one-third the size of the gap: (Rc - Rb)/3. 33 mm to 2 mm in concentric cylinder systems. • Materials that undergo phase separation (a phenomenon called slip) during testing result in particle migration during bob rotation causing a more fluid layer to form at the testing surface. • Gravity-induced particle settling producing a non-homogeneous sample during testing. 20 Bioprocessing Pipelines Mixer viscometers can often be used when any of the above problems make conventional rotational viscometers inappropriate.
The impeller (manufactured by Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, MA) has two paddle blades pitched at 15 degrees with a 9 mm diameter hole drilled in them. This geometry keeps particles in suspension so gelatinization can be studied during the heating of aqueous starch solutions. It has also been used for various pureed foods. • RVA Pitched Paddle (Fig. 6). ” It characterizes the pasting behavior of aqueous starch solutions during heating and cooling. The pitched (and curved) blade maintains particle suspension during rotation.
Bioprocessing Pipelines: Rheology and Analysis by James Freeman Steffe